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The project participants
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Why going green?
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Our approach: modularity and virtualization
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Project organization

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Welcome to the GreenNet project homepage. GreenNet (formally "Greening the Network") is an Italian Research project , founded by the Italian Ministry of Research and University (MIUR) under the FIRB "Future in Research Program". GreenNet is a three-year project, started in March 2012 and terminated in February 2016.
GreenNet is coordinated by Dr. Roberto Bruschi, and includes three Research Units:

  • the CNIT Research Unit at the University of Genoa (CNIT-GE) [Resp. Roberto Bruschi],
  • the University of Rome "La Sapienza" (UNIRM) [Resp. Antonio Cianfrani],
  • and, the University of Pisa (UNIPI) [Resp. Gregorio Procissi]

Through this web site, you can access to the project description, to the partecipant list, to the related publications, and the released SW tools.

Project Description

Today, energy efficiency can be considered as one of the biggest technological and financial challenges for developing a better and more sustainable world. This challenge arises from the need of reducing the operating, manufacturing and energy related expenses of enterprises, industries as well as residential buildings, while keeping an eye on targets for the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions. Such "green" trend is speeding up innovation in a wide range of technological fields and services, since it offers the building blocks of innovative efficiency policies for a sustainable but economically viable energy supply, one that would also encourage new industry and employment and generate broad support in society.
In this respect, Information and Communication Technology (ICT) plays a crucial role, since it is widely regarded as an enabler of energy efficiency across the economy. This includes fostering the change in citizens' behavior, as well as improving efficiency in the use of natural resources while reducing pollution and dangerous waste. ICT's nature is so pervasive throughout all kinds of economic and social activities, that a widespread opinion encourages its increasing use for achieving energy savings from the other industries.
Against this background, recent and official studies estimate that ICT industry accounts for approximately 2% of global CO2 emissions, overcoming even the carbon footprint of aviation. In detail, focusing on telecommunication networks, they are estimated to produce about 0.6% of the global CO2 emissions. Today, fixed and mobile network infrastructures have enormous and heavily increasing requirements in terms of electrical energy. For instance, the overall energy consumption of Telecom Italia in 2006 has reached more than 2 TWh (about 1% of the total Italian energy demand, and the second national consumer after the Italian railways), increasing by 7.95% with respect to 2005, and by 12.08% to 2004 [38]. In this respect, Tucker et al. [39] stated that today's networks rely very strongly on electronics, despite the great progresses of optics in transmission and switching, and outlined how energy consumption of the network equipment is a key factor of growing importance. In this sense, they suggested that the ultimate capacity of the Internet might eventually be constrained by energy density limitations and associated heat dissipation considerations, rather than by the bandwidth of the physical components [40]. In addition, starting from an expected deployment of the Telecom Italia network by 2015-2020, Bolla et al. [1] outlined how the power consumption of end-user network devices (e.g., home-gateways, VoIP phones, etc.) will represent a figure of more than twice the energy requirements of Telco equipment.
The origin of these trends can be certainly found in current Internet infrastructures, technologies and protocols, which are designed to be extremely over-dimensioned and available 24/7. Links and devices at access and core levels are provisioned for busy or rush hour load, which typically exceeds their average utilization by a wide margin. While this margin is seldom reached, nevertheless the overall power consumption in today's networks is determined by it and remains more or less constant even in the presence of fluctuating traffic loads.
Advanced features for power management are already available in the largest part of hardware technologies, today used for building network devices. Silicon of network interfaces and of device internal chips already has the possibility of entering standby modes, or of scaling its working speed and, consequently, of lowering their energy requirements.
However, the activation of this power management schemes is generally hindered by the network protocols and architectures themselves, since they are specifically designed to be always available at the maximum speeds. Even PCs are often left powered up 24/7, to maintain their network services and applications correctly working. Indeed, elements in standby (e.g., links, nodes or hosts) do literally “fall off” the network, since they are not able to exchange protocol signaling messages to maintain their “network presence”. Moreover, sleeping or wakeup events generally trigger network nodes to exchange signaling traffic, and to re-converge towards new network logical topologies and/or configurations, causing transitory network instabilities and signaling traffic storms.
Starting from these considerations, GreenNet aims at re-thinking and re-designing different aspects of the current Internet technologies and network protocols to smartly support hardware power management. The pursued approach will exploit two basic features already and largely present in today's networks and devices: the network resource virtualization and the modular architecture of nodes. These features give us the opportunity of using the same base concepts already applied in other fields (e.g., data-centers): decoupling physical elements (e.g., a line-card), which may be put in standby or scaled down their capacities to perform only base operations, from their (virtual) functionalities and resources, so that the latter can be migrated towards other active physical elements of the same device, or of other neighboring devices. In this way, the emptied physical elements may be put in standby mode, while their logical services may continue to work elsewhere.
The GreenNet project aims at investigating a coordinated set of architectural solutions, protocol enhancements, control and optimization strategies, and related software developments in order to support such kind of primitives at both core and access networks. From a more general point of view and in extreme synthesis, the development of such approach will allow:

  • Core network nodes aggregating routing and switching functionalities into a subset of their physical resources (e.g., line-cards), and put their emptied modules in standby mode.
  • End-host terminals (PCs, Customer Premises Equipment) migrating the “network presence” of their applications and/or services to network devices, and entering standby while maintaining network services up.

Obviously, the project goal is not so ambitious to pretend that it can provide a complete characterization of such a complex and multi-faceted task. However, the
approach it takes tries to focus on the integration of three main activities that contribute to the whole picture:

  1. Enabling Green Primitives in Next-Generation Network Devices
  2. Exploiting Virtualization Schemes in Network Protocols and Services
  3. Network-wide green optimizations

The activity 1) will provide the initial inputs by integrating power scaling and standby capabilities into network device hardware platforms. Specific efforts will be devoted to the study and the extension of “open” modular device architectures, able to flexibly distributing network operations to different “internal” sub-elements.
Starting from these energy-aware devices, the activity 2) will focus on network-specific virtualization schemes for decoupling network services and applications from physical elements, and make them able to migrate among active hardware. Specific research activities will be devoted to the virtualization of services and protocols at both home and core network levels. Then, the activity 3) is devoted to explore novel network-wide criteria to design and to control next-generation networks, composed by energy-aware nodes with the introduced capabilities.
The ideas carried out in the GreenNet project will not be limited to the development of analytical and simulative models, but they will be included in a green "proof-of-concept" prototype device (realized on Linux-based SW routers), in order to demonstrate their feasibility and main impact.

People

to be done

Scientific Publications

  1. R. Bolla, R. Bruschi, P. Lago, "Energy Adaptation in Multi-Core Software Routers," Computer Networks, Elsevier, vol. 65, no. 2, pp. 111-128, June 2014, DOI: 10.1016/j.comnet.2014.02.027.
  2. R. Bolla, R. Bruschi, P. Lago, "The Hidden Cost of Network Low Power Idle," Proc. of the 2013 IEEE International Conference on Communications (IEEE ICC 2013), Budapest, Hungary, June 2013.
  3. R. Bolla, R. Bruschi, C. Lombardo, F. Podda, "OpenFlow in the Small," Proc. of the 2013 IEEE International Conference on Communications (IEEE ICC 2013), Budapest, Hungary, June 2013.
  4. R. Bolla, R. Bruschi, C. Lombardo, F. Podda, "OpenFlow in the Small: A Flexible and Efficient Network Acceleration Framework for Multi-Core Systems," IEEE Transactions on Network and Service Management, vol. 11, no. 3, pp. 390-404, DOI: 10.1109/TNSM.2014.2346078.
  5. R. Bolla, R. Bruschi, A. Carrega, F. Davoli, "Green Networking with Packet Processing Engines: Modeling and Optimization," IEEE/ACM Transactions on Networking, vol. 22, no. 1, pp.110-123, Feb. 2014.
  6. R. Bruschi, P. Lago, A. Lombardo, G. Schembra, "Modeling Power Management in Networked Devices," Computer Communications, Elsevier, vol. 50, no. 1, Sept. 2014, pp. 95-109, DOI: 10.1016/j.comcom.2014.03.027.
  7. R. Bruschi, F. Davoli, M. Mongelli, "Adaptive Frequency Control of Packet Processing Engines in Telecommunication Networks," IEEE Communications Letters, vol. 18, no. 7, pp. 1135-1138, July 2014.
  8. M. Mongelli, F. Davoli, R. Bruschi, "Equivalent Bandwidth Adaptation with Energy Preservation under Delay Constraints," Proc. of the 2014 IEEE INFOCOM Workshop on Green Cognitive Communications and Computing Networks, Toronto, Canada, May 2014, pp. 688-693.
  9. R. Bolla, R. Bruschi, F. Davoli, P. Lago, "Trading off Power Consumption and Delay in Packet Forwarding Engines with Adjustable Service Rate," Proc. of the ITC 2014 EPFI Workshop, Karlskrona, Sweden, Sept. 2014.
  10. R. Bolla, R. Bruschi, A. Carrega, F. Davoli, P. Lago, "A Closed-Form Model for the IEEE 802.3az Network and Power Performance," IEEE J. on Selected Areas in Communications, vol. 32, no. 1, pp. 16-27, Jan. 2014.
  11. R. Bolla, R. Bruschi, "An Open-Source Platform for Distributed Linux Software Routers," Computer Communications, Elsevier, vol. 36, no. 4, pp. 396-410, Feb. 2013.
  12. R. Bolla, R. Bruschi, C. Lombardo, S. Mangialardi, "DROPv2: Energy-Efficiency through Network Function Virtualization," IEEE Network, Special Issue-Open Source for Networking: Development and Experimentation, vol. 28, no. 2, pp. 26-32, March-April 2014.
  13. N. Bonelli; S. Giordano; G. Procissi, Network Traffic Processing with PFQ, in IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications , vol.PP, no. 34, no. 6, pp.1819-1833. 
  14. Callegari, C., Giordano, S., Pagano, M., Procissi, G., OpenCounter: Counting unknown flows in software defined networks, (2015) Simulation Series, 47 (9), pp. 16-22. 
  15. Bonelli, N., Callegari, C., Giordano, S., Procissi, G., A bloom filter bank based hash table for high speed packet processing, (2014) Proceedings - 16th IEEE International Conference on High Performance Computing and Communications, HPCC 2014, 11th IEEE International Conference on Embedded Software and Systems, ICESS 2014 and 6th International Symposium on Cyberspace Safety and Security, CSS 2014, pp. 974-981. 
  16. Bonelli, N., Giordano, S., Procissi, G., Abeni, L., A purely functional approach to packet processing, (2014) ANCS 2014 - 10th 2014 ACM/IEEE Symposium on Architectures for Networking and Communications Systems, pp. 219-230.
  17. Abeni, L., Bonelli, N., Procissi, G., Randomized packet filtering through specialized partitioning of rulesets, (2013) IEEE Communications Letters, 17 (12), pp. 2380-2383.
  18. V. Eramo, A. Cianfrani, E. Miucci, M. Listanti, D. Carletti and L. Gentilini, "Virtualization and virtual router migration: Application and experimental validation," Teletraffic Congress (ITC), 2014 26th International, Karlskrona, 2014, pp. 1-6.
  19. Teixeira, J., Antichi, G., Adami, D., Del Chiaro, A., Giordano, S., Santos, A., Datacenter in a box: Test your SDN cloud-datacenter controller at home, (2013) Proceedings - 2013 2nd European Workshop on Software Defined Networks, EWSDN 2013, art. no. 6680566, pp. 99-104. 
  20. Adami, D., Giordano, S., Pagano, M., Roma, S., Virtual machines migration in a cloud data center scenario: An experimental analysis, (2013) IEEE International Conference on Communications, art. no. 6654923, pp. 2578-2582. 
  21. Gharbaoui, M., Martini, B., Adami, D., Antichi, G., Giordano, S., Castoldi, P., On virtualization-aware traffic engineering in OpenFlow data centers networks, (2014) IEEE/IFIP NOMS 2014 - IEEE/IFIP Network Operations and Management Symposium: Management in a Software Defined World.
  22. Adami, D., Giordano, S., Pagano, M., Santinelli, N., Class-based traffic recovery with load balancing in software-defined networks, (2014) 2014 IEEE Globecom Workshops, GC Wkshps 2014, art. no. 7063424, pp. 161-165. 
  23. Adami, D., Martini, B., Callegari, C., Donatini, L., Giordano, S., Sgambelluri, A., Gharbaoui, M., Castoldi, P., Cloud and network service orchestration in software defined data centers, (2015) Simulation Series, 47 (9), pp. 101-106. 
  24. R. Bolla, R. Bruschi, F. Davoli, A. Lombardo, C. Lombardo, G. Morabito, V. Riccobene, "Green Extension of OpenFlow," Proc. of the ITC 2014 EPFI Workshop, Karlskrona, Sweden, Sept. 2014.
  25. R. Bolla, R. Bruschi, O. M. Jaramillo Ortiz, P. Lago, "An Experimental Evaluation of the TCP Energy Consumption," IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications, vol. 33, no. 12, Dec. 2015, pp. 2761-2773.
  26. R. Bolla, R. Bruschi, O. Jaramillo, M. Rubaldo, "Burst2Save: Reducing Network-Induced Energy Consumption in the Home Environment," Computer Communications, Elsevier, vol. 52, no. 1 Oct. 2014, pp. 37-46, ISSN 0140-3664, DOI: 10.1016/j.comcom.2014.06.006.
  27. Garroppo, R. G., Giordano, S., Nencioni, G., Scutellà, M.G., Power-aware routing and network design with bundled links: Solutions and analysis, (2013) Journal of Computer Networks and Communications, 2013.
  28. Garroppo, R., Nencioni, G., Tavanti, L., Scutella, M.G., Does traffic consolidation always lead to network energy savings?, (2013) IEEE Communications Letters, 17 (9), pp. 1852-1855. 
  29. Bernard Gendron, Maria Grazia Scutellà, Rosario G. Garroppo, Gianfranco Nencioni, Luca Tavanti, “A branch-and-Benders-cut method for nonlinear power design in green wireless local area networks,” European Journal of Operational Research, Available online 4 May 2016
  30. Garroppo, R.G., Nencioni, G., Procissi, G., Tavanti, L., The impact of the access point power model on the energy-efficient management of infrastructured wireless LANs, (2016) Computer Networks, 94, pp. 99-111. 
  31. R. G. Garroppo, Gianfranco Nencioni, Maria Grazia Scutellà, Luca Tavanti, Robust optimisation of green wireless LANs under rate uncertainty and user mobility, Electronic Notes in Discrete Mathematics, Volume 52, June 2016, Pages 221-228
  32. Garroppo, R.G., Nencioni, G., Procissi, G., Tavanti, L., The energy footprint of Content-Centric Residential Community Networks, (2013) 2013 24th Tyrrhenian International Workshop on Digital Communications - Green ICT, TIWDC 2013.
  33. Garroppo, R.G., Nencioni, G., Tavanti, L., Gendron, B., The greening potential of content delivery in residential community networks, (2014) Computer Networks, 73, pp. 256-267. 
  34. Garroppo, R.G., Nencioni, G., Procissi, G., Tavanti, L., Gendron, B., Energy efficiency and traffic offloading in WLANs with caching and mesh capabilities, (2014) 2014 26th International Teletraffic Congress, ITC 2014.
  35. Garroppo, R., Gendron, B., Nencioni, G., Tavanti, Energy efficiency and traffic offloading in wireless mesh networks with delay bound, (2016) International Journal of Communication Systems, to appear
  36. A. Cianfrani, V. Eramo, M. Listanti, M. Polverini, "An OSPF-Integrated Routing Strategy for QoS-aware Energy Saving in IP backbone Networks", IEEE Transactions on Network and Service Management, Vol. 9, Issue 3, September 2012, pp. 254-267, DOI: 10.1109/TNSM.2012.031512.110165.
  37. A. Coiro, M. Polverini, A. Cianfrani and M. Listanti, "Energy saving improvements in IP networks through table lookup bypass in router line cards," Computing, Networking and Communications (ICNC), 2013 International Conference on, San Diego, CA, 2013, pp. 560-566.
  38. A. Cianfrani, A. Coiro, M. Listanti and M. Polverini, "A heuristic approach to solve the Table Lookup Bypass problem," Digital Communications - Green ICT (TIWDC), 2013 24th Tyrrhenian International Workshop on, Genoa, 2013, pp. 1-5.
  39. 39.A. Cianfrani, V. Eramo, M. Listanti and M. Polverini, "Introducing routing standby in network nodes to improve energy savings techniques," Future Energy Systems: Where Energy, Computing and Communication Meet (e-Energy), 2012 Third International Conference on, Madrid, 2012, pp. 1-7.
  40. M. Polverini, A. Cianfrani, A. Coiro, M. Listanti, R. Bruschi, "Freezing Forwarding Functionality to Make the Network Greener," Computer Networks, Elsevier, vol. 78, Feb. 2015, pp. 26-41, DOI:10.1016/j.comnet.2014.10.034.
  41. L. Chiaraviglio, A. Cianfrani, A. Coiro, M. Listanti, J. Lorincz and M. Polverini, "Increasing device lifetime in backbone networks with sleep modes," Software, Telecommunications and Computer Networks (SoftCOM), 2013 21st International Conference on, Primosten, 2013, pp. 1-6.
  42. R. Bolla, R. Bruschi, F. Davoli, “Designing Optimal Energy Profiles for Network Hardware,” Proc. of the 2012 IEEE Global Communications Conference (IEEE GLOBECOM 2012), Anaheim, CA, USA, Dec. 2012.
  43. L. Chiaraviglio, A. Cianfrani, M. Listanti, L. Mignano and M. Polverini, "Implementing energy-aware algorithms in backbone networks: A transient analysis," 2015 IEEE International Conference on Communications (ICC), London, 2015, pp. 142-148.
  44. Callegari, C., De Pietro, S., Giordano, S., Pagano, M., Procissi, G., A distributed privacy-aware architecture for communication in smart grids, (2014) Proceedings - 2013 IEEE International Conference on High Performance Computing and Communications, HPCC 2013 and 2013 IEEE International Conference on Embedded and Ubiquitous Computing, EUC 2013, pp. 1622-1627. 
  45. R. Bruschi, R. Bolla, F. Davoli, A. Cianfrani, M. Listanti, M. Polverini, G. Procissi, R. Garroppo, S. Giordano, “The GreenNet Project,” Proc. of the 2nd IFIP Conf. on Sustainable Internet and ICT for Sustainability (SustainIT 2012), Pisa, Italy, Oct. 2012.
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